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Researching Legal Issues of Sexual Orientation

Last Updated 5/2012. Direct feedback on this page to lawlib@umn.edu.


Introduction

 

Legal issues of sexual orientation arise in a wide variety of topical areas. Development of sexual orientation law accelerated greatly in the second half of the twentieth century. This is a direct result of gay people "coming out," organizing, speaking out, and engaging the legal system mostly through the courts. Therefore, many of the most important legal pronouncements regarding gay people are found in the opinions of courts. [See our guide on Finding Court Cases (Case Law).]

Legislation is another source of law affecting the legal status of gay people. Legislation is created at national, state, and local levels. [See our guide on Researching Federal & State Statutes.] Historically, most relevant legislation has been at state and local levels. These statutes and ordinances were aimed at regulating specific sexual behaviors, e.g., sodomy. More recently, there has been legislation that is more affirmative and protective of the rights of gay people, e.g., anti-discrimination laws. More recently, however, even Congress has created relevant, though far less affirmative, legislation. For example, there is the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), "protecting" heterosexual marriage.

Prior to beginning research, the researcher should develop a research vocabulary.  Terminology can be fairly straightforward in this area, as evidenced by the terms contained in the Library of Congress Subject Headings discussed below.  However, the range of legal issues that overlap with the legal issues of sexual orientation is wide and not necessarily predictable. Use a specialized legal dictionary (see bibliography below) to develop effective terminology at the beginning of research.  As research progresses, scan sources for new terminology and/or synonymous terms, and incorporate them into your searches.  In this regard, and for further understanding the wide range of legal issues which intersect legal issues of sexual orientation, scan the tables of contents from treatises in the bibliography below.


Secondary Legal Materials

 

With the recent growth and development in this area of law, and as it remains a dynamic and rapidly changing area, it is very important to do timely and up-to-date research. Using current legal resources is essential. Legal periodical literature is particularly important, because it very effectively addresses current and changing legal issues better than some of the more static publication alternatives.

Secondary legal literature includes law reviews and other legal periodicals, legal treatises, annotations, and a wide variety of other resources. A recent article is likely to identify primary legal materials and to provide relevant analysis and commentary as well. Secondary legal literature is therefore excellent for the researcher's own understanding and interpretation of the primary materials as well as for finding primary sources such as cases and statutes or ordinances.


Using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)

 

The Library of Congress classification system is vast and attempts to organize human knowledge and resources topically. Accordingly, it is how libraries assign call numbers and LCSHs to every title. "K" is the class for law. "KF" is the sub-class for American law. Most of our secondary legal materials relevant to the legal status of gay people (but not necessarily all) are classed in the "KF 4754.5" call number range.  Browse.

Library of Congress subject headings are assigned to individual titles just as call numbers are. Use them to search for books in library catalogs and for articles in some legal periodical indexes (see below).  A list of the LCSHs that have been assigned to relevant titles in our collection can be found at the end of this guide.


Finding Books

 

* Use MNCAT Discovery Catalog 
- For finding books in the University of Minnesota Libraries.
- For finding periodical titles in the University of Minnesota Libraries. NOTE: MNCAT Discovery Catalog will not assist in finding articles within a periodical - see below. It will assist in finding whether or not the title of the periodical is among our holdings.
- Search by author, title, or:
- Use LCSHs from the list at the end of this guide in:
- Basic / Browse For / Any Subject Heading begins.
- Basic / Keyword Search For / All Keywords.
- Basic / Keyword Search For / All Subject Keywords.
- Use MNCAT Discovery Advanced Search to limit your search to the Law Library, excluding all other University of Minnesota Libraries, by using the drop down "Location" menu box. Click on the down arrow, changing the location in the window from "All Libraries" to "Law Library."
- Use LCSHs from the list at the end of this guide in:
- Advanced Search / All Keywords.
- Advanced Search / All Subject Keywords.
* Use WorldCat (WCAT) 
- For finding books and periodicals (periodical titles - not for finding articles within periodicals - see below) nationwide.
- Includes all types of libraries - not just law libraries and/or academic research libraries at universities - public libraries, government libraries, special libraries, etc.
- Use WCAT to:
- verify bibliographic information.
- determine if a title exists.
- determine where a title exists & find which libraries hold particular titles by clicking on "Libraries worldwide that own item." Minnesota libraries will be listed first.
- Use LCSHs from the list at the end of this guide in:
- Basic Search / Search for / Keyword.
- Advanced Search / Search for / Keyword.
- Advanced Search / Search for / Subject.

Finding Articles

 

Legal Periodical Indexes:

 

- Current Law Index. Los Altos, CA: Information Access Corp., 1980-.

Location: Law Library: Reference Stacks K33 .C87.
Use LCSHs from the list at the end of this guide.
- LegalTrac. Los Altos, CA: Information Access Corp., 1980-.
Location: U of M TC campus (Electronic version of Current Law Index.)
Use LCSHs from the list at the end of this guide.
- Index to Legal Periodicals and Books. New York, NY: H.W. Wilson Co., 1995-.
Location: Law Library: Reference Stacks K33 .I54x.  (Continues: Index to Legal Periodicals. New York, NY: H.W. Wilson Co., 1908-1995.)
Location: Electronic version, Law Library Lumina terminals and Law School Network/Mondale Hall.
- Index to Periodical Articles Related to Law. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Glanville Publications Inc., 1958-.
Location: Law Library: Reference Stacks K33 .I52x.
Location: Electronic version on HeinOnline
For legally relevant articles from mainstream (non-legal) periodicals, i.e., Newsweek.
- Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals. London, UK: Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London, in co-operation with AALL, 1960- [Published: Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984-].
Location: Law Library: Reference Stacks K33 .I55x.
Location: Electronic version U of M TC campus.

- Minnesota Legal Periodical Index (MLPI).  St. Paul, MN: Minnesota State Law Library, 1984-.

Location:  Law Library Reference Stacks K33 .M56x.
Location:  Electronic version at:  LawMoose (http://www.lawmoose.com/index.cfm?Action=MLPI.ShowArticleFinder).

Selected & Specialized Legal Periodicals:

 

    Following are the titles of several legal periodicals all with a focus on legal issues of sexual orientation:

- Harvard Journal of Law & Gender.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law School, 2005-.

Location:  Law Library Periodicals.  Plaza Level.  Call Number: Per. H379.

- The Dukeminier Awards [electronic resource]: Best Sexual Orientation Law Review Articles of ... / the Williams Project, UCLA School of Law.  Los Angeles, CA: UCLA School of Law, 2002-.

Location:  Connect via MNCAT Discovery link or via HeinOnline.

Law and Sexuality: A Review of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Legal Issues.  New Orleans, LA: Tulane University School of Law,  1991-.

    Law & Sexuality is the first student-edited law review in the United States to be devoted to issues of concern to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.[*1]

Indexed by:  Current Law Index/LegalTrac; Index to Legal Periodicals and Books (ILP).

Location:  Law Library Periodicals.  Plaza Level.  Call number:  Per. L3335.

- Michigan Journal of Gender & Law.  Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Law School, 1993-.

     The central mission of the Michigan Journal of Gender & Law is to create a feminist legal publication that will help expand and develop legal discourse beyond traditional boundaries. The Journal is dedicated to providing a forum for exploring how gender issues and related issues of race, class, sexual orientation, and culture impact the lives of women and men. The Journal seeks to compare, contrast, and combine theoretical and practical perspectives on gender issues in order to provide a bridge between theory and practice. To achieve these purposes, the Journal will publish the views of legal scholars, social scientists, practitioners, students, and others.

Location:  Law Library Periodicals.  Plaza Level.  Call number:  Per. M51.
- National Journal of Sexual Orientation Law.  Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1995-.
    This is the first on-line law journal in the country and the second devoted exclusively to legal issues affecting lesbians, gay men and bisexuals.  Its primary purpose is to disseminate information and ideas about law and sexual orientation in an efficient and timely manner, but without duplicating the recent inclusion of articles on sexual orientation in traditional law reviews. The Journal specializes in four distinct types of works:
- reports and studies germane to gay and lesbian legal issues
- transcriptions of proceedings, panels and programs
- briefs filed by litigators around the country in key cases
- essays, student work and other forms of traditional law review scholarship which, due to space limitations, may not be published in traditional reviews and journals.[*2]

Indexed:  Internet only; electronically searchable.

Location:  World Wide Web.  http://www.ibiblio.org/gaylaw/

- Lesbian/Gay Law Notes.  New York, NY: Bar Association for Human Rights of Greater New York [currently published by Lesbian and Gay Law Assocation of New York], 1984-.
    Lesbian/Gay Law Notes reports on lesbian/gay and AIDS legal developments; tracking significant new legislation, reporting on new court decisions, administrative rulings, and executive actions, and highlighting new publications of interest.  It also serves as an information exchange about new job
openings in the public interest lesbian/gay rights legal field, and relays information about conferences and publication opportunities.  The focus is primarily US law, but also reported on are developments in other countries from time to time.  Law Notes is edited and chiefly written by Prof. Arthur
Leonard of New York Law School.  Publication is monthly (combined July/August summer issue).[*3]

Indexed:  Internet availability since 1994; electronically searchable via QRD at http://www.qrd.org/qrd/www/search.html

Location: Law Library.  Plaza Level.  Call number: KF4754.5.A15   L47

    Since 1994, Lesbian/Gay Law Notes has been published and archived by the Queer Resources Directory (QRD) at:
http://www.qrd.org/QRD/www/usa/legal/lgln/lgln.html
    In addition to the newsletter at this site, since 1992, Professor Leonard and his students compile an annual case table listing all the citations for cases of interest which have been discussed in the newsletter throughout the year.  Also at this site, he has compiled an AIDS legal bibliography which contains a list of law review articles which reference AIDS or HIV.[*4]

Finding Annotations

 

The chief source of legal annotations is American Law Reports,  Annotations and Cases.  Rochester, NY: Lawyers Co-operative Pub. Co.,  (currently published by West Group)  1919-.  Successive series are as follows:
A.L.R. Fed. (1969-) -- federal topics
A.L.R. 5th (1992-) -- state topics
A.L.R. 4th (1980-1992) -- state topics
A.L.R. 3rd (1965-1980) -- state (& federal until 1969) topics
A.L.R. 2nd (1948-1965) -- state & federal topics
A.L.R. (1919-1948) -- state & federal topics
A.L.R. Index (1948-) -- use to find annotations by keyword & topic.

Annotations are encyclopedic essays or memoranda which collect cases around a particular point of law.  The collected cases are then discussed and analyzed in depth regarding that point of law. Annotations are an excellent source of analysis and commentary, and they also effectively assist the researcher in locating additional relevant cases in a variety of jurisdictions and then analyzing and synthesizing them.  Use the A.L.R. Index to find relevant annotations in all of the above series except for the first (A.L.R.).  For illustrative purposes, a selective list of examples follows:

- Marriage Between Persons of the Same Sex -- United States and Canadian Cases.  Robin Cheryl Miller, J.D. and Jason Binimow, J.D.  1 A.L.R.Fed.2d 1 (2005). 

- Validity, Construction, and Application of Solomon Amendment, Which Denies Federal Funding to Institutions of Higher Education That Prohibit Military Representatives Access to and Assistance for Recruiting Purposes.  Deborah F. Buckman, J.D. 5 A.L.R.Fed.2d 551 (2005).

- Federal and State Constitutional Provisions as prohibiting Discrimination in Employment on Basis of Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Sexual Orientation or Conduct.  Robin Cheryl Miller, J.D.  96 A.L.R.5th 391 (2002).

- Validity, Construction, and Application of State Enactment, Order, or Regulation Expressly Prohibiting Sexual Orientation Discrimination.  Robin Cheryl Miller, J.D.  82 A.L.R.5th 1 (2000).

- Custodial Parent's Homosexual or Lesbian Relationship With Third Person as Justifying Modification of Child Custody Order.  Elizabeth Trainor, J.D. 65 A.L.R.5th 591 (1999).

- Initial Award or Denial of Child Custody to Homosexual or Lesbian Parent.  Elizabeth Trainor, J.D. 62 A.L.R.5th 591 (1998).

- Visitation Rights of Homosexual or Lesbian Parent.  Caroll J. Miller, J.D.  36 A.L.R.4th 997 (1985).


Primary Legal Materials

 

Primary legal literature is that which is the law, and it includes authoritative pronouncements and publications from the three branches of government -- judicial, legislative, and executive or administrative.  As mentioned above, gay people in recent decades have engaged the legal system and developed the law of sexual orientation primarily in the courts. Activities in the legislative arena have also been on the rise. Administrative law is an area much less likely to involve legal issues relating to sexual orientation and is therefore not included further.

One of the easiest ways to identify, locate, and understand primary materials is through the use of secondary materials. One recent law review article, an annotation, or even a treatise (see the bibliography below) can can do just that; identify and provide citations for key cases and statutes.  This is the recommended case finding method for those who are not in need of complete, exhaustive, and authoritative research. In this section, traditional tools for finding primary law are discussed for those who must dig deeper.


Finding Cases

 

See also our guide on Finding Cases)

As mentioned, the easiest way to find cases may be to find articles and/or books (see the bibliography below) about the legal topic being researched.  Throughout the text and in footnotes, cases and statutes will be cited.  Books may also contain a "table of cases" and/or a "table of statutes" just as they contain "tables of contents".  Finally, Lesbian/Gay Law Notes (above) provides excellent access to cases.

Digests provide a more "traditional" method of finding cases in reporters, and they exist for most jurisdictions, i.e., state(s) and/or federal.  Determination of jurisdiction will determine which digest(s) and reporter(s) to use.  For further assistance in making this determination, see our guide, Finding Court Cases (Case Law) at: http://library.law.umn.edu/researchguides/caselaw.html.

Having located the relevant digest, begin with the volumes labeled Descriptive Word Index to search for cases by keyword and/or topic.  References will be to topics and key numbers with each digest's topical volumes arranged alphabetically and broken down into sub-sections by key numbers, each representing particular points of law.  Within each key number, short blurbs or annotations describe cases touching on the point of law represented by that particular key number.  Based on the facts underpinning one's research, compare those with the facts in the blurbs to find relevant cases.

If you have the name of a specific case, use the digest volumes labeled "Table of Cases" to find the citation for that case.

If there is a particular statute at issue and you already have a citation for it, simply look it up in the annotated statutory code for that jurisdiction (see our guide on Researching Federal and State Statutes at: http://library.law.umn.edu/researchguides/statutes.html). Cases will be listed in the annotations following the text of the statute itself. They are often listed under the heading "Notes of Decisions" or "Interpretive Notes and Decisions" depending upon publisher.  If a relevant statute can be identified, this is one of the best methods for finding all relevant case law.


Finding Legislation (Statutes)

 

See also our guide on Researching Federal & State Statutes

As mentioned elsewhere in this guide, the easiest way to find cases may be through secondary literature.  Find articles and/or books (see the bibliography below) about the legal topic being researched.  Throughout the text and in footnotes, cases and statutes will be cited.  Books may also contain a "table of cases" and/or a "table of statutes" just as they contain "tables of contents".

If there is a particular statute at issue and you already have a citation for it, simply look it up in the annotated statutory code for that jurisdiction (see our guide on Researching Federal and State Statutes at: http://library.law.umn.edu/researchguides/statutes.html).

If you do not already have a citation, there are more traditional methods of finding statutes.  Statutory codes for all American jurisdictions, both federal and state(s), contain comprehensive topical indexes.  They are usually located at the end of these multi-volume sets. Use relevant terms from your research vocabulary in the index. Codes contain a variety of tables, most of which are beyond the scope of this guide. However, among the tables in most codes is one called the "popular name table" or "table of popular names."  If you know the popular name of a statute, such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 or the Minnesota Human Rights Act, finding it in the popular name table will provide its citation and where to find it within the statutory code.


GLBT Legal Organizations & Associations

 

Minnesota:

OutFront Minnesota
Website: http://www.outfront.org/
    OutFront Mission Statement: "OutFront Minnesota's mission is to make our home a place where GLBT Minnesotans have the freedom, power, and confidence to make the best choices for their own lives."
    OutFront is a community-based, membership organization that serves the statewide GLBT and allied communities of Minnesota with a wide variety of programs and services, including legal.  It is Minnesota's largest GLBT organization, and it is the only organization representing the GLBT community on a full-time basis at the Minnesota Legislature.[*5]
Minnesota Lavender Bar Association
Website: http://www.mnlavbar.org/
    Minnesota Lavender Bar Association is an organization of legal professionals and students committed to promoting social justice through education and advocacy, focusing on legal and public policy issues affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex people.  MLBA
  • is dedicated to helping GLBT individuals in Minnesota access the highest quality legal assistance available and to assist them with the legal needs they face through such means as referrals and clinics.
  • seeks to improve the responsiveness of the legal system in Minnesota to the needs of GLBT individuals.
  • seeks to help employers and others understand their legal responsibilities to their GLBT employees, customers, and others.
  • works with allied professionals to broaden their familiarity with GLBT individuals, to expand the quality of and access to their services for GLBT people, and to work together on issues of common concern.
  • develops legal education programs designed to bring together leaders influential in the development of the law to address emerging legal issues in Minnesota.[*6]
  • National:

    An extensive listing of GLBT organizations and associations many of which deal with legal issues is at: http://www.qrd.org/qrd/orgs/.

    A selective listing of legally-focused GLBT organizations and associations at the national level follows:

    American Civil Liberties Union Lesbian & Gay Rights Project
    Website: http://www.aclu.org/lgbt/index.html
    The goal of the ACLU Lesbian and Gay Rights Project is equal treatment and equal dignity for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered people. That means even-handed treatment by the government, protection from discrimination and fair and equal treatment for lesbian and gay couples and families.[*7]
    Amnesty International's GLBT Project -- OUTfront
    Website: http://www.amnestyusa.org/outfront/
    Working from the belief that all people deserve equal protection under the law, a growing international movement of activists is taking up the challenge to protect the dignity and rights of LGBT people everywhere.  OUTfront, Amnesty International USA's Program on Human Rights and Sexual Identity, is part of an international network of Amnesty activists who are organized to confront these violations and protect the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.[*8]
    Human Rights Campaign (HRC)
    Website: http://www.hrc.org/
    The Human Rights Campaign is dedicated to ending discrimination, securing equal rights and protecting the health and safety of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender Americans.  HRC lobbies the federal government on LGBT legislative and regulatory matters. HRC and the HRC Foundation also advocate before the courts as an amicus, participate in judicial nominations, lead and/or actively work on national civil rights coalitions, educate the public, participate in elections and work at the grassroots level on civil rights and political matters of national importance.[*9]

    HRC Legal Department represents the organization on cutting-edge issues before all three branches of federal government, its membership and the media. It also provides comprehensive corporate legal services to HRC executives, boards of directors and governors.[*10]

    Lambda Legal
    Website: http://www.lambdalegal.org/
    Lambda Legal is a national organization committed to achieving full recognition of the civil rights of lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, the transgendered, and people with HIV or AIDS through impact litigation, education, and public policy work.  It carries out its legal work principally through test cases selected for the likelihood of their success in establishing positive legal precedents that will affect lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, the transgendered, and people with HIV or AIDS.  Lambda Legal also maintains a national network of volunteer Cooperating Attorneys, which widens the scope of our legal work and allows attorneys, legal workers, and law students to become involved in our program by working with our legal staff. Lambda Legal pursues litigation in all parts of the country, in every area of the law that affects communities we represent. [*11]
    National Center for Lesbian Rights
    Website: http://www.nclrights.org/
        Founded in 1977 and headquartered in San Francisco, NCLR is a national, lesbian, feminist, non-profit law firm and is also a national legal resource center with a primary commitment to advancing the rights and safety of lesbians and their families through a program of litigation, public policy advocacy, free legal advice and counseling, and public education. In addition, NCLR provides representation and resources to gay men, and bisexual and transgender individuals on key issues that also significantly advance lesbian rights.[*12] [*13]

    National Gay & Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF)
    Website: http://www.ngltf.org/

        NGLTF is a national progressive organization working for the civil rights of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered people, with the vision and commitment to building a powerful political movement. NGLTF is the recognized expert in the field of GLBT-related state legislation and employs a comprehensive program of state legislative tracking, monitoring and reporting. Updates during the legislative sessions supplement Capital Gains and Losses, the annual report summarizing legislation by category and analyzing overall trends in the state legislative arena. The Task Force has a full-time state legislative lawyer to draft legislation, articulate policy arguments, provide legal research, manage a national clearinghouse of legislation and policy materials, and develop legislative strategies.[*14]
    National Lesbian and Gay Law Association
    Website: http://www.nlgla.org/
    NLGLA is a national association of lawyers, judges, and other legal professionals, law students and affiliated lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender legal organizations.  Established in 1988 and an affiliate of the American Bar Association since 1992, NLGLA sponsors year-round national and local events throughout the United States.  It has rapidly become a national voice for lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and transgenders in the legal profession.  The Association exists to promote justice in and through the legal profession for the lesbian and gay community.[*15]

        Lavender Law is the annual conference of the National Lesbian and Gay Law Association (NLGLA) and the National Lesbian and Gay Law Foundation (NLGLF).

    Service Members Legal Defense Network (SLDN)
    Website: http://www.sldn.org/
    SLDN is a national, non-profit legal services watchdog and policy organization dedicated to end discrimination against and harassment of military personnel affected by "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" and related forms of intolerance.  The website contains a "law library" with a variety of relevant materials and resources.[*16]

    Selective Bibliography

     

    Abramson, Paul R. et. al. (editors).  Sexual Rights in America: The Ninth Amendment and the Pursuit of Happiness.  New York, NY: New York University Press, 2003.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number: KF9325 .A93 2003.

    Achtenberg, Roberta (editor).   Sexual Orientation and the Law.  New York, NY: Clark Boardman Co.,  1985-.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number: KF4754.5 .S48 1985. The first comprehensive legal treatise on sexual orientation issues.

    Anderson, Ellen Ann.  Out of the Closets and Into the Courts:  Legal Opportunity Structure and Gay Rights Litigation.  Ann Arbor, MI:  University of Michigan Press, 2005.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call Number:  KF4754.5 .A96 2005.

    Ayres, Ian and Jennifer Gerarda Brown.  Straightforward:  How to Mobilize Heterosexual Support for Gay Rights.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.  Location:  Law Library Second Floor.  Call Number:  HQ76.8 .U5 A97 2005. 

    Bamforth, Nicholas (editor).  Sex Rights:  The Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2002.  Oxford; New York, NY;  Oxford University Press, 2005.  Location:  Law Library Second Floor.  Call Number:  HQ1236 .S49x 2005. 

    Boele-Woelki and Angelika Fuchs (editors).  Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Couples in Europe.  Antwerpen; New York: Intersentia; Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, 2003.  Location: Law Library Fourth Floor.  KJC1159 .L44x 2003.

    Boschenek, Michael.  Hatred in the Hallways:  Violence and Discrimination Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students in U.S. Schools.  New York, NY:  Human Rights Watch, 2001.  Location:  Law Library Fourth Floor.  Call number:  LC212.82 .B67x 2001.

    Cain, Patricia A.  Rainbow Rights: The Role of Lawyers and Courts in the Lesbian and Gay Civil Rights Movement.  Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5 .C35 2000.

    Chauncey, George.  Why Marriage?:  The History Shaping Today's Debate Over Gay Equality.  New York, NY:  Basic Books, 2004.  Location:  Law Library Second Floor.  Call Number:  HQ76.8 .U5 C43 2004.

    Conte, Alba.  Sexual Orientation and Legal Rights.  New York, NY:  J. Wiley,  1998.  (Supp. 2001).  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number: KF4754.5 .C66 1998.

    Curry, Hayden and Frederick Hertz.  A Legal Guide for Lesbian and Gay Couples.  15th. ed.  Berkeley, CA:  Nolo Press, 2010.

    Eskridge, William N.  Equality Practice: Civil Unions and the Future of Gay Rights.  New York, NY: Routledge, 2002.  Location:  Law Library Second Floor.  Call number:  HQ76.3 .U5 E85 2002.

    Eskridge, William N.  Gaylaw: Challenging the Apartheid of the Closet.  Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press,  1999.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  Reserve KF4754.5 .E84 1999.

    Dupuis, Martin.  Same-Sex Marriage, Legal Mobilization, & the Politics of Rights.  New York: Peter Lang, 2002.  Location:  Law Library Second Floor.  Call number:  HQ1034 .U5 D86 2002.

    Gerstmann, Evan.  The Constitutional Underclass: Gays, Lesbians, and the Failure of Class-Based Equal Protection.  Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1999.  Location:  Law Libary Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5 .G47 1999.

    Gerstmann, Evan.  Same Sex Marriage and the Constitution.  Cambridge; New York, NY:  Cambridge University Press, 2004.  Location:  Law Library Plaza Level.  Call Number:  KF539 .G47 2004.

    Goldberg-Hiller, Jonathan.  The Limits to Union:  Same-Sex Marriage and the Politics of Civil Rights.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002.  Location:  Law Library Second Floor.  Call number:  HQ1034 .U5 G65 2002.

    Gregory, Raymond F.  Unwelcome and Unlawful:  Sexual Harassment in the American Workplace.  1st. ed.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call Number:  KF3467 .G74 2004.

    Halley, Janet E.  Don't: A Reader's Guide to the Military's Anti-Gay Policy.  Durham: Duke University Press, 1999.  Location:  Law Library Fourth Floor.  Call number:  UB418 .G38 H35 1999.

    Harvard Law Review.  Sexual Orientation and the Law.  Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press,  1990.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5 .S492 1990.

    Hirsch, H.N.  The Future of Gay Rights in America.  New York: Routledge, 2005.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call Number:  KF4754.5 .F88 2005.

    Hunter, Nan D., et. al.  The Rights of Lesbians, Gay Men, Bisexuals, and Transgender People:  the Authoritative ACLU Guide to a Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender Person's Rights. 4th ed.   Carbondale, IL:  Southern Illinois University Press, 2004.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5 .Z9  H86 2004.

    Keen, Lisa and Susan B. Goldberg.  Strangers to the Law:  Gay People on Trial.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF228 .E94 K44 1998.

    Knauer, Nancy J.  Gay and Lesbian Elders: History, Law and Identity Politics. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Pub., 2010 Call number: KF4754.5 K59x 2011.

    Knutson, Donald C. (editor).  Homosexuality and the Law: a Special Double Issue of the Journal of Homosexuality (fall 1979-winter 1980), volume 5, nos. 1 and 2.  New York, NY: Haworth Press, 1980.

    Koppelman, Andrew.  The Gay Rights Question in Contemporary American Law.  Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

    Levy, Sydney (ed.)  Asylum Based on Sexual Orientation:  A Resource Guide.  San Francisco, CA: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission and Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund, 1996.  Location:  Law Library Reserve.  Call number:  K3230 .R45 A89x 1996.  

    MacKinnon, Catharine A.  Sex Equality.  Lesbian and Gay Rights.  New York, NY: Foundation Press,  2003.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5 .M33x 2003.

    Mello, Michael.  Legalizing Gay Marriage.  Philadelphia, PA:  Temple University Press, 2004.  Location:  Law Library Second Floor.  Call Number:  HQ1034 .U5 M45 2004.

    Minnesota State Bar Association, Continuing Legal Education.  Elimination of Bias on the Basis of Sexual Orientation.  St. Paul, MN:  Minnesota Continuing Legal Education, 2003.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call Number:  KF209 .M54x no. 67.

    Moats, David.  Civil Wars:  A Battle For Gay Marriage.  1st. ed.  Orlando, FL:  Harcourt, 2004.  Location:  Law Library Second Floor.  Call Number:  HQ1034 .U5 M62 2004.

    Mohr, Richard D.  The Long Arc of Justice: Lesbian and Gay Marriage, Equality, and Rights.  New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2005.  Location:  Law Library Second Floor.  Call Number:  HQ76.3 .U5 M642 2005.

    Murdoch, Joyce and Deb Price.  Courting Justice: Gay Men and Lesbians v. the Supreme Court.  New York, NY: Basic Books, 2001.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5 .M87x 2001.

    Pierceson, Jason.  Courts, Liberalism, and Rights: Gay Law and Politics in the United States and Canada.  Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2005.  Location: Law Library Plaza.  Call Number:  KF4753.5 .P54 2005.

    Pinello, Daniel R.  Gay Rights and American Law.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call Number:  KF4754.5 P56 2003.

    Richards, David A. J.  The Case for Gay Rights: From Bowers to Lawrence and Beyond.  Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2005.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call Number:  KF4754.5 .R525 2005.

    Richards, David A. J.  Women, Gays, and the Constitution: the Grounds for Feminism and Gay Rights in Culture and Law.  Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1998.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5 .R53 1998.

    Robson, Ruthann.  Martin Duberman (general editor).  Gay Men, Lesbians, and the Law.  New York, NY:  Chelsea House Publishers, 1995?.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5.Z9 R63 1995.

    Robson, Ruthann.  Lesbian (Out)law: Survival Under the Rule of Law.  Ithaca, NY: Firebrand Books, 1992.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5 .R63 1992.

    Robson, Ruthann.  Sappho Goes to Law School:  Fragments in Lesbian Legal Theory.  New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1998.  Location:  Law Library Third Floor.  Call number:  K349 .R63 1998.

    Rollins, Joe Neil.  AIDS and the Sexuality of Law:  Ironic Jurisprudence.  1st Palgrave Macmillan ed.  New York, NY:  Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call Number:  KF3803 .A54 R65 2004.

    Ronner, Amy D.  Homophobia and the Law.  1st. ed.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association, 2005.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call Number:  KF4754.5 .R66 2005.

    Rubenstein, William B.  Lesbians, Gay Men, and the Law.  1st ed.  New York, NY: New Press: 1993.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5.A7 L48 1993.

    Sexual Orientation and the Law.  Eagan, MN: West, 2012-   .  Location: Law Library Plaza.  Call number: KF4754.5.S4811x.

    Stewart, Chuck.  Homosexuality and the Law:  a Dictionary.  Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO,  2001.  Location:  Law Library Plaza.  Call number:  KF4754.5.A68 S74 2001.

    Wardle, Lynn D. et. al. (editors).  Marriage and Same-Sex Unions: A Debate.  Westport, CT:  Praeger, 2003.  Location:  Law Library Second Floor.  Call Number:  HQ1034 .U5 M37 2003.


    Library of Congress Subject Headings

     

    Civil rights -- United States.
    Constitutional Law - [..........] (Name of State)
    Constitutional law -- United States.
    Equality before the law -- United States -- Cases.
    Equality before the law -- United States.
    Feminism -- United States.
    Gay men -- United States.
    Gay rights -- United States.
    Gay rights -- United States -- Cases.
    Gays -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- United States.
    Gays -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- United States -- Dictionaries.
    Gays -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- United States -- Periodicals.
    Homosexuality -- Law and legislation -- [.......] (Name of State)
    Homosexuality -- Law and legislation -- United States.
    Homosexuality -- Law and legislation -- United States -- Bibliography.
    Homosexuality -- Law and legislation -- United States -- Cases.
    Homosexuality -- Law and legislation -- United States -- Dictionaries.
    Homosexuality -- Law and legislation -- United States -- History.
    Homosexuality -- Law and legislation -- United States -- Periodicals.
    Homosexuality -- United States.
    Homosexuality -- United States -- Bibliography.
    Lesbians -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- United States.
    Lesbians -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- United States -- Periodicals.
    Lesbians -- United States.
    Sex and law -- United States.
    Sex and law -- United States -- Bibliography.
    Sex discrimination -- Law and legislation -- United States -- Cases.
    Sex discrimination in employment -- Law and legislation -- United States.
    Sex discrimination in employment -- Law and legislation -- [..........] (Name of State)


    End Notes

     

    1. Law & Sexuality: A Review of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Legal Issues; at http://www.law.tulane.edu/tlsjournals/tlas/index.aspx (last visited 5/12/2008). (Return)

     

    2. The National Journal of Sexual Orientation Law, available at http://www.ibiblio.org/gaylaw/ (last visited 5/25/2007).  (Return)

     

    3. Lesbian/Gay Law Notes, hardcopy at Law Library (KF4754.5.A15 L47) and online via MNCAT Discovery.  (Return)

     

    4. Id at http://www.qrd.org/qrd/www/search.html (last visited 5/25/2007).  (Return)

     

    5. OutFront Minnesota at http://www.outfront.org/aboutus (last visited 5/11/2009).  (Return)

     

    6. Introduction to Minnesota Lavender Bar Association at http://www.mnlavbar.org (last visited 5/25/2007).  (Return)

     

    7. American Civil Liberties Union, Lesbian & Gay Rights at http://www.aclu.org/lgbt/index.html (last visited 5/25/2007).  (Return)

     

    8. Amnesty International USA, OUTfront! Human Rights and Sexual Identity at http://www.amnestyusa.org/outfront/ (last visited 5/25/2007).  (Return)

     

    9. Human Rights Campaign, What We Do: An Overview, The Human Rights Campaign & The Human Rights Campaign Foundation: Working for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Equal Rights at http://www.hrc.org/about_us/what_we_do.asp (last visited 5/12/2008).  (Return)

     

    10. Id at http://www.hrc.org/about_us/what_we_do.asp (last visited 5/12/2007).  (Return)

     

    11. About Lambda Legal at http://www.lambdalegal.org/about-us/ (last visited 5/25/2007).  (Return)

     

    12. About NCLR at http://www.nclrights.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_overview (last visited 5/25/2007).  (Return)

     

    13. Id at http://www.nclrights.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_overview (last visited 5/25/2007).  (Return)

     

    14. About NGLTF at http://www.thetaskforce.org/about_us/ (last visited 5/25/2007).  (Return)

     

    15. National Lesbian & Gay Law Association at http://www.nlgla.org/ (last visited 5/25/2007).  (Return)

     

    16. About SLDN at http://www.sldn.org/templates/index.html (last visited 5/12/2007).  (Return)


    Links verified 4/16/2009